For this second part that I took a few days to prepare, I will first explain about nodal positivity in prostate cancer and then will try to give a fair review for both oncological and surgical management of localised prostate cancer with nodal positivity. Significances of Nodal Positivity (N+) for Prostate Cancer Let's focus on … Continue reading A Case of High Risk Localised Prostate Cancer with Nodal Positivity (N+) – Part 2
Today I'd like to write quickly about one case that was presented at urology multidisciplinary team (MDT) for discussion. Patient was in his 60s, diagnosed prostate adenocarcinoma T3a (extracapsular extension) Gleason score 8 (4+4) and initial PSA of 45. MRI also noted single left internal iliac lymph node measuring 2 x 1cm with loss of … Continue reading A Case of High Risk Localised Prostate Cancer with Nodal Positivity (N+) – Part 1
Introduction In solid tumours, bone metastasis most commonly happen in prostate, breast and lung cancers. In vertebra spine, bone metastasis can cause catastrophic compression fracture (bone fracture that compresses the spinal cord) which leads to: paraplegia (paralysis of both lower legs) quadriplegia (paralysis of both upper and lower limbs if compression fracture happened at higher … Continue reading Management of Bone Metastasis with Radiotherapy
Above is one of the chemotherapy that is used to fight against many different types of cancer. It's effective in curing cancer at early stages, controlling advanced cancer and palliate (providing patients with symptoms relief) at late stage. Instead, patients choose apricot seed, snake grass leaves, Vit B17 or others. There is always newer 'treatments/ … Continue reading Cancers Can Be Cured
The above are called immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab) that target and bind to PD-1 or PD-L1, denying PD-1 and PD-L1 linkage. PD-1 is receptors on activated T-cells while PD-1 ligand, PD-L1, is present in normal cells (and also in some tumor cells). Linkage of PD-1 and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) will cause T-cells to … Continue reading Advanced/ Stage 4 Lung Cancer: Immunotherapy in 2nd line treatment.