Living Longer: Advanced Breast Cancer (ABC) – HER2 over-expressed (II)

What happen when first-line treatment fails? In advanced or metastatic breast cancer, first-line treatment will fail after certain duration of time. This is because cancer cells developed resistance to the treatment and not because the treatment is ineffective. Life doesn’t end when first-line treatment fails. We just continue fighting the cancer with other effective second-line…… Continue reading Living Longer: Advanced Breast Cancer (ABC) – HER2 over-expressed (II)

News: Chemotherapy Kill Cancer Patients, Not Cancer?

The good intentions: The study published in reputable The Lancet Oncology journal emphasised the importance of proper selection of cancer patients for chemotherapy treatment, especially patients who are old or have poor performance status. The study also stressed on the importance of mortality review in order to improve clinical decision making (identifying patients who does…… Continue reading News: Chemotherapy Kill Cancer Patients, Not Cancer?

Living Longer: Advanced Breast Cancer (ABC) – HER2 over-expressed (I)

Introduction HER2 over-expression constitutes 20% of all breast cancer. Two different methods are being used to test for HER2 over-expression, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) Immunohistochemistry (IHC); identifies HER2 expression on the cell surface, with a grading system of 0 to 3+ positive. tumors are classed as HER2-positive if they have a…… Continue reading Living Longer: Advanced Breast Cancer (ABC) – HER2 over-expressed (I)

Living Longer: Advanced Breast Cancer (ABC) – Triple Negatives; ER/PR/HER2 (-ve)

Introduction Breast cancer is not a single disease but comprised of distinct biological subtypes with different prognosis and treatment options: Luminal A: ER/PR+ve, Her2-ve Luminal B: ER/PR+ve, Her2+ve HER2 over-expressed: Her2+ve Triple negatives/ basal-like: ER/PR-ve, Her2−ve Among the different subtypes above, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10%-15% of breast cancer diagnosed. TNBC carries the worst prognosis and…… Continue reading Living Longer: Advanced Breast Cancer (ABC) – Triple Negatives; ER/PR/HER2 (-ve)

HPV Vaccination: Preventing Cervical Cancer (II)

Introduction Firstly, some information about cervix and cervical cancer. Cervix is the lower end of the uterus, about 2.5 to 3.5 cm long on top of the vagina Cervical cancer is cancerous/ malignant growth or tumor resulting from the uncontrolled division of abnormal cells at the cervix.  Many are detected via Pap smear during screening, as…… Continue reading HPV Vaccination: Preventing Cervical Cancer (II)