The above are called immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab) that target and bind to PD-1 or PD-L1, denying PD-1 and PD-L1 linkage. PD-1 is receptors on activated T-cells while PD-1 ligand, PD-L1, is present in normal cells (and also in some tumor cells). Linkage of PD-1 and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) will cause T-cells to…… Continue reading Advanced/ Stage 4 Lung Cancer: Immunotherapy in 2nd line treatment.
Our government is doing its very best to provide quality yet affordable healthcare for all. Affordable doesn’t mean it should be free. Affordable means ‘reasonably priced’ and at lower cost to patients. Expecting treatment for RM1 or RM5 or free is just not sustainable at all in the long term as the cost of treatment escalates…… Continue reading Complaint. Explanation. Understanding?
Introduction In this study, participants aged 55-74 years old, who had history of cigarette smoking >30 years or former smokers who had quit within 15 years were screened using low-dose CT (LDCT) or chest X-ray (CXR), yearly for three consecutive years. Results Those who had yearly LDCT screening had higher number of lung cancer diagnosed…… Continue reading Lung Cancer Screening: Reducing Lung Cancer Death
Make Sense Campaign (MSC) MSC is a health campaign in Europe to raise awareness in head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of the campaign are to raise awareness of head and neck cancer and ultimately improve outcomes for patients with the disease. How to achieve the above objectives? Educating patients on disease prevention (risk…… Continue reading Head and Neck Cancer (HNC): Make Sense Campaign (MSC)
Adjuvant treatment Adjuvant treatment is treatment given after primary treatment (eg. surgery, radiotherapy) to fully eradicate any remaining cancer cells. Types of adjuvant treatment for cancer are chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy and biologic therapy. Why is adjuvant treatment important? Even if the surgery was successful at removing all visible tumor, microscopic cancer cells…… Continue reading Colorectal Cancer (CRC): Benefits of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage III CRC