The above are called immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab) that target and bind to PD-1 or PD-L1, denying PD-1 and PD-L1 linkage. PD-1 is receptors on activated T-cells while PD-1 ligand, PD-L1, is present in normal cells (and also in some tumor cells). Linkage of PD-1 and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) will cause T-cells to…… Continue reading Advanced/ Stage 4 Lung Cancer: Immunotherapy in 2nd line treatment.
Introduction In this study, participants aged 55-74 years old, who had history of cigarette smoking >30 years or former smokers who had quit within 15 years were screened using low-dose CT (LDCT) or chest X-ray (CXR), yearly for three consecutive years. Results Those who had yearly LDCT screening had higher number of lung cancer diagnosed…… Continue reading Lung Cancer Screening: Reducing Lung Cancer Death
Introduction Just some brief information (numbers) on small cell lung cancer (SCLC) before I jump into treatments for advanced SCLC. 20% of all lung cancers 95% are cigarette smokers (remaining I strongly believe is caused by second hand smoke (SHS) or environmental tobacco smoke (ETC) 90% of the tumor is located centrally 70-80% are extensive/…… Continue reading Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) – Deadliest Lung Cancer
Introduction Firstly, with optimal palliative chemotherapy treatment for stage 4 lung cancer, the average survival is slightly under a year; 7.4 months – 8.1 months (Schiller JH, 2002), which doubled the average survival with just best supportive care, 3.9 months. Although improvement in survival was achieved with chemotherapy, it seemed like chemotherapy alone had reached…… Continue reading Living Longer: Stage 4 Lung Adenocarcinoma EGFR Mutation positive
Introduction For patients with stage 4 lung adenocarcinoma, they should be tested for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene rearrangements, which affects about 5% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This group of stage 4 lung cancer is highly sensitive to ALK inhibitors (crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, brigatinib, ensartinib and lorlatinib). Crizotinib The first ALK inhibitor…… Continue reading Better Practice: Improving first-line treatment against Stage 4 ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)