The above are called immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab) that target and bind to PD-1 or PD-L1, denying PD-1 and PD-L1 linkage. PD-1 is receptors on activated T-cells while PD-1 ligand, PD-L1, is present in normal cells (and also in some tumor cells). Linkage of PD-1 and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) will cause T-cells to…… Continue reading Advanced/ Stage 4 Lung Cancer: Immunotherapy in 2nd line treatment.
Brief In Malaysia, renal cell cancer or kidney cancer present at stage 4 in 50% of cases. Cases are detected incidentally during imaging (USG, CT scans), more than those who present with the classical triad of flank pain, gross hematuria and palpable abdominal mass. Histologically, 80% are of clear cell type and if one is…… Continue reading Living Longer with Advanced/ Stage 4 Renal Cell Cancer ~ 1st Line Treatment (Treatment Naive/ No Previous Treatment)
Introduction Every year, there will be a certain treatment that will be the highlight of discussion and presentations in every oncology meetings/ events. Last year, it was durvalumab, which delivered superior results for a subgroup of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) Addition of immunotherapy, durvalumab, to chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment in stage 3 lung cancer…… Continue reading Better Practice: Trimodality Treatment, 3x Improvement in Stage 3 Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
Not all lung cancers are of the same type, stage or treated similarly. Targeted therapy For stage 4 lung adenocarcinoma (subset of NSCLC), further testing of EFGR and EML4-ALK mutation are routinely done in Malaysia. ROS1 rearranged mutation drivers is not routinely done although targetable treatment is available. Those with detected mutation/ presence of oncogenic…… Continue reading Stage 4 Lung Cancer: Targeted therapy & Immunotherapy. Which to Start?