The above are called immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab) that target and bind to PD-1 or PD-L1, denying PD-1 and PD-L1 linkage. PD-1 is receptors on activated T-cells while PD-1 ligand, PD-L1, is present in normal cells (and also in some tumor cells). Linkage of PD-1 and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) will cause T-cells to…… Continue reading Advanced/ Stage 4 Lung Cancer: Immunotherapy in 2nd line treatment.
Introduction In this study, participants aged 55-74 years old, who had history of cigarette smoking >30 years or former smokers who had quit within 15 years were screened using low-dose CT (LDCT) or chest X-ray (CXR), yearly for three consecutive years. Results Those who had yearly LDCT screening had higher number of lung cancer diagnosed…… Continue reading Lung Cancer Screening: Reducing Lung Cancer Death