The above are called immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab) that target and bind to PD-1 or PD-L1, denying PD-1 and PD-L1 linkage. PD-1 is receptors on activated T-cells while PD-1 ligand, PD-L1, is present in normal cells (and also in some tumor cells). Linkage of PD-1 and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) will cause T-cells to…… Continue reading Advanced/ Stage 4 Lung Cancer: Immunotherapy in 2nd line treatment.
Introduction In this study, participants aged 55-74 years old, who had history of cigarette smoking >30 years or former smokers who had quit within 15 years were screened using low-dose CT (LDCT) or CXR, yearly for three consecutive years. Results Those who had yearly LDCT screening had higher number of lung cancer diagnosed when compared…… Continue reading Lung Cancer Screening: Reducing Lung Cancer Death